Experience design aims to create a replicable experience, perhaps a series of feelings through narrative arc, or feelings of delight, or calmness. To do this, it uses theatrical elements like settings, timings, props, and messaging. Ritual design uses the same tools, but does not aim not to create a replicable experience, but rather to create an environment where users can build their own experience, and live by the values they came with.
Consider the Jewish ritual of sitting shiva:
During shiva, the immediate family who are sitting shiva are visited by other family and friends who share memories and console each other. The mood and nature of the space is decided by the people involved.
This ritual is not about designing an experience for the widow or their community. It's about giving space to the bereaved to have their own experience. Space for the values that come to play after death.